An Experience Teaching English for Tour Guide: Belitong Island Geopark

 

During my stay in Belitong I met a friend from my previous event in Bali, I called her Yuk Nisa. She told me about her community’s project in teaching English for tour guide, she said it is a part of Belitong Island Geopark project. Belitong Island Geopark is a project initiated by ITB (Institut Teknologi Bandung / Bandung Institute of Technology) with BUMD (Badan Usaha Milik Daerah) to develop the natural resources of Belitong20161206_171825 Island and to harmonize the society components.  

As communication is one of the aspects considered important to support the geopark project, BUMD in collaboration with PCMI Belitong (Purna Caraka Muda Indonesia/ Indonesia Student Exchange Alumni) conducting English training for the potential tour guide candidate. Most of the training participants are senior high school students and young people who lived in Belitong. Hence, they are well-understand about the Geopark sites and some of tourist destinations.

Back to my experience in the classroom session. Lucky me, my friend invited me to come with her and help the facilitator team in teaching English. In my first session I met Kak Ocha (known as Dokter Ocha) in reading activity about forest as natural resources article. I was acting as the narrator of the article, so I read aloud sentence by sentence and we were trying to find out any difficult word. Kak Ocha and I decided to use this method because all of the participants (in our group) are beginner (maybe they are in A1 – A2 level), so we helped them to know the meaning of each word and understand the meaning of word from the sentence context. I realized that this method was useful to introduce them basic knowledge of vocabulary. We wrapped up our today’s session by having scrabble game.

I learnt from them that it is not too late to learn. Some of them never learnt English before, they looked tough in absorbing some of information and I did try my best using Bahasa Indonesia as medium of instruction. As the facilitator, we need to make English easier to be learnt.

Next week was my second chance to join the session. I met a new friend from PCMI, he told me to help him to share about Part of Speech for today session. He started the class by explaining about effective sentence and asked students to make their own effective sentence which contains Subject (S) and (Verb). He previously gave the example of effective sentence and asked students to make one, and from that sentences he briefly explained about some of sentence’s component that belong to Part of Speech.

If I may share my opinion about the learning phase for today’s session, it was quite absurd and not smoothly conduct, why did I say that? Based on the Bloom Taxonomy theory ‘creating’ is the highest level of skills in the classroom context. I mean, if the learning objective is to know and understand about Part of Speech is a way better to get students understand about the basic knowledge of it, not to directly introduce them into effective sentence. We need start from general knowledge to specific one, so it would give clearer picture to the students.

I was given 10 minutes’ session to explain about Part of Speech in detail. I was trying to tailor it up what the previous facilitator had explained to stay in track with the learning objectives.

Joining my last session in their English class made me realize about something. It is indeed interesting to have experience teaching English for tour guide yet it requires detail preparation for its module and I believe it is not easy (in my opinion). Once I joined English for Specific Purposes (ESP), we made a module for particular purpose and it required us to spend a lot of effort in preparation (need analysis, data collection and subject matter research) and furthermore to predict the applicability of our module.

What do I need to prepare if I want to join international conference, festival or camp ?

So I decided to share about this as some people asked me about the tips and tricks to be selected to join such international conference, festival, camp, summit and so on. To be honest, I am quite selective person about the event I want to attend, it is all basically based on my education background and personal interest.  Here are some points that I think need to be considered before applying (based on some types of event and based on my experiences):

The Conference

  1. Understand about the topic of conference, is it related to your background of study?. If the main theme is too broad and you have no idea about it, then you have to move to the sub – theme, it will give you detail of issues are going to be discussed in the conference.
  2. Take a look the registration fee, will they support international participant or presenter? and you have to wonder how will you afford for the fee and travel expense (self-funding or sponsor).
  3. Some of conferences offer you chance to be the presenter or audience, you might choose one. However, if you register as presenter you will have a chance to be the audience of the conference.

    loaaa
    And if you are afraid of being solo presenter, you can conduct joint-research
  4. If you consider to register as presenter then you have to prepare what kind of research you want to conduct, start to draft your abstract (well actually the ‘mainstream’ research produces its abstract after finishing the whole research). However, it is possible for you to send the abstract as kind of research’s plan, write down the purpose of research, methodology and expected result of your research. I suggest you to ask for help from your teacher, lecturer or colleagues to give a comment and proof read your draft of abstract. You may check some of my research’s abstract excerpt here https://athifahutami.wordpress.com/category/research-journey/
  5. If you have already sent your abstract, what you need to do next is waiting for the evaluation process and Letter of Acceptance. Your abstract might be selected for oral presentation or poster presentation. However, in some cases (almost) the committee required for each of selected abstract to finish their full paper, ideally and usually within 3 or 4 months prior to the conference day. It means you need to finish your research no late than the due date because your abstract might be rejected to be presented and published in conference proceeding.

The Camp and/or Festival

  1. Take a look at the type of the camp, is it self-funding, scholarship (fully-funded) or partial-funded camp? . This point is crucial because you need to prepare some budget for your activities during the program. Some of the camp program will offer you scholarship or partial-funded, do not hesitate to ask about that if it is not mention on the program’s website.

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    Letter of Invitation example – AYLC 2014. The committee will inform what is included in scholarship value.
  2. You need to understand well (at least you know or curious) about the theme of the camp, because you will exactly spend your time to discuss about the theme.
  3. Pay attention to the application form. Some of the program usually ask you to write down around 200-500 words of essay and it is usually related to your experience about the theme. My suggestion, highlight your related skills (with the theme), be precise but thorough (it means you do not need everything you just need to directly answer the question on the application form).

    quest
    Question form example
  4. Avoid to submit your application close to the due date. Why ? It will give you more opportunity to be selected because the committee will have more time to read through your application (in my experience). It means you have to prepare the essay and fill you application as soon as you decide to apply.
  5. Wait for the Letter of Acceptance.

Well, actually some of the events have similarities for the selection process. The things that I do consider are; the benefits of the events for me (take for example for leadership skills, for academic matter or professional development) and the place that I want to visit (you have a chance to travel while joining the program). In my opinion, I join the conference for my academic and professional development, for the reason I join the camp program for enhancing my communication and leadership skills (it is more fun than conference, indeed) and that is the same reason for festival.

If you want to look for opportunities such as conference, festival, camp and exchange, you can check on twitter or fb of @tweetkuliah @YOpportunities @OpportunityDesk. Good luck!

W – TERFIL (WASHING WATER FILTRATION) BERBASIS FILTER CARBON

Finalist at Lomba Karya Tulis Ilmiah KPM Universitas Negeri Jakarta (2011)

Written by Athifah Utami, Aprina Rosyadah and Noflianda Sagita

The factor of water crisis and ground polluted are caused by human activities that did not care with their environment. One of the pollute be the factor of water crisis is a laundry wastewater, mainly commercial laundry wastewater that can waste until 60 litre water with 5 wash machines in 3 – 4 steps. Much more effort have done for decreasing the pollute by coagulation and flocculation. Except two of the way, we tried to innovate making the water filtration that also made by pollute, is that W – Terfil (washing water filtration)based on filter carbon, this thing also one of the effort to decreasing gelam wastewood that one of the most commodity in South Sumatera. The purpose of this study is to know the way making W – Terfil, applicated to removal duct in wash machine, and the work of W – Terfil as the water filtration. The methods of this study are an experiment and literate observations. Results from this study, the way to make W- Terfil divided into three steps, is that :1)Manufacturing gelam wastewood into carbon active, 2)Design the W – Terfil and applicated to removal duct in wash machine, 3) Working W – Terfil as the water filtration.
Keyword: Laundry wastewater, W – Terfil, Filter carbon, Gelam wastewood.

EFFECTIVITY AND EFFICIENCY E-LEARNING SYSTEM SMA NEGERI 2 SEKAYU (An Abstract)

3rd place at Lomba Karya Tulis Ilmiah Politeknik Negeri Sekayu (2011)

Written by Athifah Utami and Riri Wulandari

Pengaruh arus global sifatnya dinamis mempengaruhi banyak aspek dalam pola belajar di era ini, perkembangan media belajar, cara penyampaian materi ajar, yang tentunya diharapkan akan memberikan kemudahan dan daya tarik yang lebih dibandingkan cara lama yang dipakai. E–learning istilah untuk electronic learning yang saat ini memang sedang gencar–gencarnya dikembangkan di dunia pendidikan di Indonesia. SMA Negeri 2 Sekayu merupakan salah satu sekolah yang akan mengembangkan sistem pembelajarn e-learning pada proses pembelajaran kepada peserta didiknya. Maka disini kami akan membahas seberapa efektif dan efisienkah pembelajaran yang berbasis e-learning ini, dan bagaimana tanggapan dari peserta didik dan tenaga pendidik mengenai penggunaan sistem pembelajaran berbasis e-learning. Kami menggunakan metode wawancara dengan responden peserta didik dan tenaga pendidik (guru), diperoleh hasil bahwa peserta didik antusias serta mendukung diadakannya program e-learning, sedangkan dari sudut pandang tenaga pendidik sendiri mereka juga berusaha maksimal dalam keberhasilan terselenggaranya program ini, karena menurut mereka keberhasilan program e-learning ini tergantung dari adanya kerjasama yang baik antara peserta didik dan tenaga pendidik. Berdasarkan hasil analisa dari wawancara yang telah kami lakukan dapat disimpulkan bahwa e-learning merupakan metode belajar yang efektif untuk beberapa pelajaran yang sifatnya non-eksak, dan efisiensi karena siswa dapat lebih mudah mengunduh materi ajar dan bagi guru sendiri hal ini akan lebih efisien jika guru akan melakukan evaluasi online kepada peserta didiknya.

Kata Kunci : E-learning, efektifif, efisien, peserta didik, tenaga pendidik (guru).

ROI-FC (REVERSE OSMOSIS INSTALLED FLOOD CANALS)

Was rejected for Indonesia Science Project Olympiad 4 (2012)

Written by Athifah and Aldi Dwi Wahyu

Flood is a often disaster happened, even in some of districts are being client of flood in rainy season. BNPB mapped and declared there are 11 provinces dangerous for bandang flood, some of them are Nangroe Aceh Darussalam, West Sumatera, West Kalimantan and 8 other provinces. Canal system is effort for decreasing flood that have goverment done for while, such as Flood Canal East  system and Flood Canal West. In this study we tried to innovate making reverse osmosis flood canals as a solution for flood and also reuse flood water to be home water consumtion to fill requisite of water daily life. The purpose of this study is to know the way making Reverse Osmosis Installed Flood Canals and its mechanism in reuse flood water to be home water. The methods of this study are an experiment and literate observation. Result from this study, the way to make Reverse Osmosis Installed Flood Canals contain some of steps, are that: 1) preparation tools and ingredients, 2) making of reverse osmosis membrane and active carbon, 3) making of reverse osmosis installed flood canals.

Key Words : Flood, Reverse Osmosis, Flood Canals.

Coldest Place Warm People (An unbelievable experience from ISFiT 2015)

The story of frozen fairy tale, once happened in my life. Last year, it was my first winter, my first long flight, my first midnight-outdoor-ice-skating, and some other my-first-moments in my life took placed in Trondheim, a small city in Norway, North of Europe.

Just three months before the event, International Student Festival in Trondheim (ISFiT), I received the invitation from the committee, saying that I was selected to attend Education Workshop in ISFiT. In short, some people asked me how did I afford for my travel expense?, the answer is I got the support from Ministry of Education and Culture of Indonesia and Sampoerna Agro. It was a lucky moment because I received the fund just about less than a week prior to my departure. I booked the ticket just two or three days before my departure (then you might wonder when did I prepare my visa?, I have requested the Schengen Visa last two months, I have myself ready for some important travel documents). That was the story for pre-departure.

I spent more than 15-hours flight with one stop in Malaysia and one transit in Schiphol Amsterdam. Welcomed by -6 degree Celsius in Amsterdam, I continued my flight for 1 hour and 55 minutes to Trondheim. My astonishment when I spotted into the multicolored-houses cover by the snow, such fairy tale setting. People said that Trondheim as the inspirational-setting for Frozen movie, how glad to know that I was witnessing the fictional-setting in a real life.

For 10-days living in Trondheim, I was hosted by Trine and Anders who lived around Vallentylust street together with Lisa (South Africa) and Lia (Italy). Trine was preparing ISFiT-knit-glove made of blue and white worsted.

ISFiT knit, id card, welcoming postcard and chocolate
ISFiT knit, id card, welcoming postcard and chocolate

Unfortunately, I did not take a single photo of our dinner table, we were too busy with tuna soup and a cup of ice cream with vanilla Madagascar essence. That was how I end my first night in Trine’s home.

Lisa, Lia and I were regularly took a bus to reach the event venue. Never come a single second late to the bus shelter because you have to wait for another 15 or 30 minutes for the next bus to come. I experienced that once and it was horrible to wait for more than 30 minutes during the winter. We had regular agenda in the morning with our workshop, I attended Education workshop to talk about corruption and education in Indonesia.

Education workshop is a place where I met various young people from 32 different countries. We discussed mainly about corruption issues in form of whole class discussion, debate, role-play and focus group discussion, we felt overwhelm sometime.

I missed our ‘check-in’ and ‘check-out’ time where we started an

Education Workshop tribe
Education Workshop tribe

d closed our meeting by sharing our thought (just few sentences to express our thought before and after the workshop session). I missed our coffee time, ‘good morning’ vibes, our tense-yet-fruitful discussion, our ‘Hi Ha Hu’ game, our snowball war and everything we went through during ISFiT. I wish I could rewind all the moments.

I had a great time not only at the event yet I spent a lot of wondrous moments with my host-family. Once, I went back from the event’s venue around 11 p.m., I told Trine and Andres that we could not make our ski-day-out due to the ice-melting. As the replacment, Anders took Lia and I to the nearest outdoor-ice-skating place. I was too focus with my ice-skating lesson and had no time to take any single picture, and I badly regretted it.

Looking forward to visit Trondheim in spring or summer 🙂

 

Saya pernah bertanya, “Kenapa saya suka kopi?”

 

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Kopi dan Mbah Uti

Kopi mengingatkan saya pada Mbah Uti (nenek) saya. Beliau memang bukan yang pertama memperkenalkan saya dengan kopi, tapi beliaulah yang mengajarkan saya bagaimana memperlakukan kopi dari buah – biji kopi pilihan – hingga menjadi kopi yang bisa diseduh. Nenek memang bukan petani kopi, dahulu kami memiliki beberapa batang kopi di kebun kami. Saya yang masih kecil ikut sibuk membantu mbah uti memilih buah-buah kopi yang baru dipetik. Lalu saya memperhatikan bagaimana beliau menjemur biji-biji kopi yang habis dikupas dan dicuci di bawah terik. Setelah beberapa hari, biji – biji kopi yang sudah kering disortir, dipilih sesuai dengan ukuran, aroma, bentuk dan warna hingga bisa dikatakan biji kopi yang bagus. Dahulu masih sangat tradisional, saya membantu mbah uti mengaduk-ngaduk kopi di atas kuali panas tanpa minyak atau pun air (kami sebut proses ini “sangrai”). Proses penyangraian kopi inilah yang membuat biji kopi yang berwarna cokelat gelap menjadi hitam dan mulai beraroma pahit-legit. Saya semakin bersemangat berjam – jam di dapur. Sehabis disangrai, biji kopi ditumbuk di lesung hingga halus lalu diayak untuk mendapatkan bubuk kopi seperti kopi-kopi di kemasan. Kopi- kopi yang sudah siap seduh itu benar-benar mengeluarkan aroma menenangkan (bagi saya). Kopi hitam ini yang selalu mengingatkan saya pada masa kecil saya dan mbah uti.

Americano Pertama

Cinta saya kepada kopi sesederhana kenikmatan kopi hitam, original. Saya cukup jarang nongkrong di kedai-kedai kopi semacam st*rb*ck atau The C*ff** B**n meski saya suka ngopi. Mungkin beberapa orang menggandrungi kopi karena tempat atau merknya, tapi saya suka kopi karna itu kopi, akan lebih menyenangkan mengeksplor aroma-aroma dan racikan kopi di setiap sudut warung kopi. Suatu siang di salah satu kampus di Mahasarakham, Thailand. Saya mampir ke kedai kopi kecil yang semua ornamen warungnya berbahan kayu dengan aksen vintage. Melihat daftar menu, saya langsung tertuju pada Iced Coffee Americano di baris paling atas. Harganya sekitar 60 bath (seingat saya) dengan ditemani dua potong biscuit kering bertabur choco chip. Sekitar 20 menit, Iced Coffee Americano saya telah tersedia dan saya cukup kaget kalau ternyata Americano itu adalah kopi hitam tanpa gula. Tegukan pertama membuat saya sedikit nyengir karna pahit, tapi lama kelamaan saya menemukan kesegaran alami kopi hitam, saya suka Americano. Mungkin bagi sebagian orang meminum kopi hitam yang pahit agak mengganggu, tapi bagai saya ini sungguh menyegarkan. Saya ketagihan dengan Americano, jadi malam harinya saat kami punya kesempatan untuk mampir ke pasar malam, saya mampir di kedai kopi pinggir jalan seberang pasar. Kedai ala retro, hanya ada dua kursi panjang busa dan beberapa pajangan kaos – kaos dan denim yang ternyata dijual. Saya memesan kopi yang sama, Americano. Kali ini saya tidak akan sekaget sebelumnya, tapi saya akui Americano di kedai ini lebih kuat dari aroma dan kafeinnya. Benar saja, tidak lama setelah menghabiskan kopi, saya merasa pusing tidak kepalang.

Kopi O’ “Oh ternyata kopi item”

Saya suka duduk di warung kopi dan mencoba segala rasa kopi. Di akhir tahun 2015 saya diberi kesempatan main-main ke Manggar, kota yang disebut dengan kota 1001 Warung Kopi, alangkah surga rasanya. Sore itu sehabis dari Perpustakaan Andrea Hirata, saya dan keluarga keliling kota Manggar sebelum pulang. Benar saja disebut 1001 Warung Kopi, di setiap sudut jalan dan pinggir jalan, kita akan sangat mudah menemukan warung kopi. Kami mampir di warung kopi millennium karena penataan tempat-tempat duduknya yang cukup memberikan ruang dari satu kursi ke kursi lain. Saya membaca satu nama kopi yang bagi saya baru, Kopi O’. Sebenarnya bisa saja setiap sebelum memesan saya bertanya kopi macam apa yang akan saya minum, tapi saya suka membuat diri saya kaget dengan rasa kopi baru yang saya temui. I do not judge the coffee from its name, it simply because I am curious, believe me I will make the conclusion after I taste it. Ternyata saat pesanan datang, saya akhirnya tau kalau Kopi O’ ternyata kopi hitam. Satu hal yang menarik dari kopi O’, kopi ini tidak sesederhana diseduh dengan air mendidih tapi Kopi O’ dimasak atau direbus bersama air, sehingga ikatan molekul air dan bubuk kopi benar-benar menyatu secara sempurna.  

Aroma Arabica, mint tea dan Vanila Madagaskar yang Otentik

Ngomong-ngomong soal kopi, jenis Arabica sebenarnya adalah kopi tipe ideal saya (eaak). Menurut saya, kopi jenis Arabica rasanya lebih kuat ditambah kalau rasanya agak keasam-asaman, sedap. Awal tahun 2015, saya diberi kesempatan mengunjungi Norwegia, salah satu negara di belahan benua Eropa. Kala itu sedang turun salju, saya membawa buah tangan berupa dua bungkus Kopi Luwak Instant untuk keluarga baru di sana. Beruntungnya saya, ternyata mereka pendoyan kopi juga dan host fam saya bahkan menghaluskan sendiri biji-biji kopi yang dia bawa dari daratan Arab dan Afrika (dia suka bepergian). Setiap malam setelah pulang dari acara yang saya ikuti, saya selalu menyempatkan diri untuk berkumpul bersama mereka dan mencoba setiap jenis teh dan kopi di meja makan. Saya cukup menggemari teh bunga (lupa nama bunganya) yang biasanya disajikan saat natal, rasanya sedikit pedas dan segar aroma mint. Adalagi kopi hitam dari Brazil yang rasanya legit dan aromanya wangi, ini kopi yang biasanya saya seduh untuk bekal saya di tempat acara.  Tidak ketinggalan, di malam pertama saya dan teman – teman saya sampai di rumah mereka, kami disuguhi es krim vanilla dan mencicipi harumnya biji vanilla dari Madagaskar, aromanya begitu lembut dan otentik.

Sebenarnya saya suka semua jenis kopi, terlepas itu Arabica atau Robusta. Tapi menurut saya, kopi yang nikmat adalah kopi yang dinikmati bersama orang yang tepat. Sudah itu saja.

Pengaruh Eksistensi Warung Tegal terhadap Manajemen Keuangan Anak Kos (Studi Kasus Anak Kos Mahasiswa SSE Intake 2012)

Was selected for an oral presentation at National Educators Conference, Jakarta 2012

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Sebanyak 65% mahasiswa baru Sampoerna School of Education intake 2012 yang berasal dari luar kota Jakarta tentunya harus menjadi seorang anak kos. Sebagai anak kos dan mahasiswa yang masih dalam usia remaja dan dewasa muda akan ada kesulitan bagi mereka dalam mengatur kehidupan barunya sebagai anak kos. Dimulai dari hal menyediakan makanan sendiri yang tentunya menjadi kerepotan baru ketika seseorang menjadi anak kos, ketika di rumah mereka tidak perlu kerepotan menyediakan makanan maka ketika mereka jauh dari rumah semua harus mereka kerjakan sendiri. Disisi lain keberadaan warung tegal yang menjamur dan mudah dijangkau di daerah sekitar kosan (pancoran-cikoko) menjadi suatu kemudahan bagi anak kos dalam membeli lauk atau pun makanan yang kisaran harganya terjangkau. Sehubungan dengan kondisi di atas  maka penulis mencoba untuk mengobservasi mengenai pengaruh eksistensi warung tegal terhadap manajemen keuangan anak kos Mahasiswa SSE intake 2012. Penulis menggunakan metode wawancara kepada 13 orang anak kos Mahasiswa SSE intake 2012 untuk mengetahui berapa banyak dari mereka yang memilih membeli makanan di warung tegal dan alasan mereka memilih warung tegal, lalu melakukan observasi lapangan untuk mengetahui eksistensi  warung tegal di dekat kosan mahasiswa SSE intake 2012. Berdasarkan hasil wawancara dan observasi didapatkan data bahwa anak kos Mahasiswa SSE intake 2012 ada sebanyak 92% memilih membeli makanan di warung tegal dikarenakan harganya yang murah berkisar Rp.5000-Rp.10.000 sehingga dapat mengirit uang makan sekitar 40% hingga 50% jika dibandingkan harus membeli jajanan seperti bakso, nasi goreng dan sebagainya.

Kata kunci- Anak Kos, Warung Tegal, Manajemen Keuangan.

Differences of Learning Strategies in Second Language Learning (Study case of Learning Strategies ELT 2012 Cohort) (An Abstract)

Was selected for an oral presentation at CamTesol 14th Conference, Cambodia 2015

A strategy of language learning is useful under these conditions: the strategy relates well to the L2 task at hand, the strategy fits the particular student’s learning style preferences to one degree or another, and the student employs the strategy effectively and links it with other relevant strategies. Strategies that fulfill these conditions ‘‘make learning easier, faster, more enjoyable, and more self-directed, to new situations’’ (Oxford in Ehrman, et.al., 2003). The purpose of this study is to examine student of English Language Teaching Department 2012 cohort’s strategy in learning English. Methodology: 11 participants were involved in this study, and they came from various region and/or province in Indonesia, with purposes sampling selected. The data were collected by applying a questionnaire, and the instruments used in this study is The Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL version 7.0 for ESL/EFL learners, 50 items) and An Individual Background Questionnaire (IBQ) was adapted from Hong-Nam and Leavell (2006). Findings: there are some strategies ranks in high usage learning strategy, such as compensatory, cognitive, and meta-cognitive.

 

Differences of Learning Strategies in Second Language Learning (Study case of Learning Strategies ELT 2012 Cohort)

 

The Components of Critical Thinking Skills and Student’s Voices in L2 Undergraduate Argumentative Essay (An Abstract)

Was selected for an oral presentation at The 3rd International Language and Language Teaching Conference, Yogyakarta 2016

Presentation
I was presenting my research paper

There are some skills considered important for students, they are skills are life and career skills, learning and innovation skills, and information-media-technology skills. In learning and innovation skills, critical thinking is one of the primary issues that should be the goal of focus in the field of education. In order to be a critical thinker, students have to express their own perspectives to respond any issue through communication without any force from other people, it is called as student voices. This study aims to find out the components of critical thinking skills, students’ voices and the degree of agreement from students toward those skills in argumentative essay. This study was conducted in EAP Class in one of university in Jakarta. This study employed a qualitative method and nine out of 164 students were selected to participate. The data was collected through argumentative essay documentation and interviews.

Keywords: critical thinking skills, students’ voices, argumentative essay and students’ degree of agreement.